Magazine "My business", reference to the article:
A cashdesk is a key point, where most processes what be going on in a shop meet together, to meet with a customer that estimates the money, as far as these processes concertedly and work effectively. It is very important therefore, as far as her work is well debugged. A cashdesk - it not only a monitor, keyboard and box with money, this also software is the virtual filling that determines the capacity of vehicle. The value of the cash program is great, a great deal depends on her choice and efficiency.
The cash program must possess next properties: by high functionality, reliability and security, and also must provide interests of cashier, customer, owner and state. On the cash program implementation of all business processes depends in a shop, clear and effective maintenance of customer.
It is necessary, that she was able to support the maximal amount of peripheral units - scintiscanners, introductory devices, прикассовые scales. Functionality is provided also by the openness of the cash program in relation to other informative systems of shop. The program must be sociable.
The modern methods of trade introduce in the cash program the functionality aimed at the maximal grant of concomitant services at the feasance of purchase. It is эквайринговые services at paying for the payment cards of the different systems, systems of payments for services(for example, for mobile communication and cable television), payment for a commodity the before accumulated bonuses, grant other story and another personal discounts to the customer, receipt on a cashdesk besides the check of concomitant to the sale of documents, for example, of accounts-invoices, superimposed, commodity checks, warranty coupons.
The cash program must be maximally integrated with other informative systems of shop, including a бэк-офис, system of videosupervision.
Other obligatory condition for the cash program is enhanceable reliability, faulttolerance. In fact a program failure means standing of cashdesk, and consequently the lost money. Thus enhanceable reliability - it also protecting from the unauthorized actions of cashier.
Program reliability supposes what external influences the cash program will work in spite of, and no information will disappear from memory. Some cashiers specially begin to check the cash program for firmness, включают-выключают cashdesk, pull up the cord of feed from a wall outlet, hoping that information about a cotter pin will disappear from memory of cashdesk, and money for a purchase, that was left by a customer, it is possible to put to itself in a pocket. The developers of the cash programs must understand that a desire to get money will compel a cashier to search ways for the failure of the program.
The cash program must have a few degrees of defence and division of plenary powers between different persons on realization of some actions : to correct something in present information, обнулить, reprogram. Usually such defence is provided by physical facilities - special key that can include different office hours with a cashdesk is the mode of cashier, administrator, programming, tax inspector. But the key can be lost or counterfeited. The stage of protecting is therefore needed yet from unauthorized encroachment into the program, for example, fixing of all actions carried out with the program in memory of cashdesk. It allows in case of finding out some interference always to reconstruct, when it happened, as well as, perchance, by whom.
However, it is necessary always to take into account that a cashier can use another ways of deception - to do manipulations with a few purchases of one cost, to play with a discount.
Thus high security of the program must not mix her capacity, the program must help to sell a commodity that is in a hall. For example, a commodity came in a hall, a customer that wants to buy him appeared, but information about a commodity is not entered in a database. There must be possibility to enter his price by hand on such case, taking advantage of option of sale through a free price. This variant is also actual in the case when a commodity has some defect, but a customer is ready to purchase him with a certain discount. Through the option of free price he can be sold not at that price that is indicated in a database. But an only certain person must authorities possess for it, for example, manager. With this option it is necessary to work very carefully: not to give authority on her use to the cashiers, because at that rate, will take away all shop only for one dollar. But also absence of this option in something limits trade.
The cash program must provide defence of interests of owner, but not only. She must be objective and to come forward also on the side of cashier, customer, that not insignificantly are the states, providing his fiscal interests.
From simple to difficult
Term-of-trades depend on a format a shop works in that. An assortment, trade margin, depends on him. In different formats and the cash programs will work differently.
For дискаунтера the cash program must only fix purchases, in a supermarket and гипермаркете - already to realize principles of the personal marketing. In дискаунтере, where turnover, basic options, is important is a quickness and reliability. In a supermarket more individual going is near a client, here an important place is occupied by промо-акции, marketing.
What nearer to дискаунтеру, a "functional" is required those less, than nearer to the supermarket, гипермаркету of недискаунтерного type, the anymore becomes the personal marketing is important and a more "functional" is required.
It does not mean that for every format the different cash programs are written. Usually they possess complete functionality without depending on a format in that they will work, simply unnecessary, surplus for this trade point options are "closed". Plenitude of architectural decisions of the cash program depends on the volume of certain tasks that she is necessary to decide.
A format in the shops of identical profile - from минимаркета to гипермаркета - does not influence on functionality of the cash program, because today the level of services, given on a cashdesk in little shops and in гипермаркетах practically identical. Thus requirements to reliability and speed of service in little shops are at times even higher in a kind that on all shop is present, maybe, one only cashdesk. Other business is a type of shop : trading in the manufactured goods, clothing, medications, introduces gold in cash software the specific. For example, in the shops of сash&сarry for customers - legal entities - printing of accompanying documents is required: accounts-invoices, invoices.
Pluses and minuses of association
The cash programs must be in the permanent intermingling with a surrounding them infrastructure. On a cashdesk information is thrown down about current prices, discount clients, also possibility of co-operating must be envisaged with electronic price-lists, access must be provided to information about prices from an electronic certificate booth.
Can the cash programs be transferred control to the special cash server related to the trade system of shop. Such integration has noticeable advantages consisting of possibility of automatic change of reference book of commodities and cash program setting, and also operative receipt of information about a situation with the range of goods in a trading floor. Clear, that the selection of the special cash server complicates the trade system, but it is justified.
But it is necessary to take into account that the presence of any new link promotes complication of the system. A cash server lowers reliability. It is possible to do without cash servers, that cashdesks called straight to the central office, but for it it is necessary to pay the increase of requirements to the channels, transmitter information.
The problem of integration of data in a network is related to reliability of work of the used physical communication and protocols of a transport exchange channels, and also with functional possibilities of depository of data of the cash program and applied operating systems. A basic problem is conception of association, as it is needed for this purpose, at least, to centralize next functions: tuning of equipment, management by a personnel and management by discounts.
Integration gives complication of the system, and decline of reliability, but also advantages. These advantages especially brightly show up at raising and decision of intricate problems. It is thus necessary to mean that management by a network is more difficult process, than management by a separately standing shop, as a sufferet error is in-process circulated on the amount of shops and increases repeatedly. On the other hand, the attained advantage too increases repeatedly.
Much or small?
Which is a minimum level of integration of cashdesks and cash programs? As far as complete information must the cash programs and central office share? And as must it take place often?
At establishment of frequency of communication of data from cashdesks there can be two extremes: one time per a day after closing of changing and with every check. The receipt of data from the cash programs is important, foremost, for organization of logistic of deliveries. And to pass information one time per a day obviously not enough. Suppliers usually work from 9 to 18, and they must secure an order on supplying with a commodity to completion of the working day, that it is impossible in case of removal of bits and pieces on completion of work of shop. Suppliers will secure an order only on a morning, that late enough.
Other extreme is a transmission by the cash program of information about every check. An occurring once a minute transmission of tiny packages of data in the system is the surplus loading, promotes the risk of loss of information. Sometimes, certainly, an information transfer is needed about a cotter pin at once, when it is necessary immediately after these actions to take off a commodity from a sale, or in an order immediately to count the new terms of discount client, changing in connection with a new purchase. But it not always is needed, in general, these both extremes rather exceptions.
Some regulation that determines frequency of communication of data is usually appointed. For example, orders on supplying with commodities on one category of suppliers are done to 12 hours, on other - to 18 hours, on the third category - to 23 hours. Coming from the requirements of logistic, a chart, on that to these periods of time actual information is passed on bits and pieces, on the basis of that an order is done, is determined.
Thus data can be taken off with different plenitude, that determines the different level of integration. A minimum level of integration is unloading from the cash program of data about sales and loading in her new commodities and prices. A maximal level is an on-line-exchange with other informative systems on all intersecting parameters(more precisely speaking, on all basic reference books are goods and services, штрихкоды, prices, discounts, personnel).
On occasion maximal integration can be even unavailing and results in certain confusion is who, where, when and that did. It can take place in case that, for example, the functional of the cash program duplicates the functional of the trade system of shop partly.
Information about every sold category of commodity can be passed by one line, where the amount of the sold commodity is specified only, it can be used only in an order to determine bits and pieces of commodity.
Such variant suffices only in those trade points, where the amount of sales is minimum, although they can be expensive, when one perfect purchase does all daily profit yield. What intensity of sales less than, the less than there must be integration and complication of the cash program.
Did time of analytic geometry come?
A maximal and optimal volume of information transfer is a grant of data about every check.
In a network "Copeck" is in summer of 2004, there were 300 million scan-outs of commodities in a month. It is a mad volume of information, but him it is desirable to use fully. Because maximal knowledge about purchases gives an opportunity for realization the best, more detailed analysis of business, allows to understand how sales идут, allows maximally to manage processes. The complete working out in detail of information, by the given cash program, is needed practically at any level of conduct of retail business, including for a separate supermarket, and it is obligatory for the network of shops. However, obtained information it is needed to be able to process and do corresponding conclusions. Now, in opinion of experts, only 10% of all ритейлеров uses this information, actually she remains unclaimed. It contingently that a competition did not yet reach to such level, when ability to work with information will give advantage.
But those, who already uses analytical methods the works with data, given by the cash programs, those, who masters them, does reserve on the future, demonstrates ability to look in a prospect.