What discount and which is her nature?
Not falling in the difficult peripeteias of marketing terminology, it is possible to consider that a discount is offtake on a marked-down cost(formally or actually). With the row of reservations it is possible even to count discounts the family economic dumping.
Taking apart essence of discounts, it is foremost necessary to say that this invention of the XX century. If to study historical traditions of sales promotion, then discounts in the classic understanding of this word we will not find out. Besides a today's researcher must come from confession of unity and intercommunication of the system of discounts with development of relatively modern conception of "unique trade suggestion(УТП) ". Out of understanding of nature of УТП understanding nature of discounts is practically impossible.
Итак, beginning, from the second half of the XX century a market was filled with the most various products. And if before a production developed coming not from the necessities of customers, and from the ideas of own financial viability and partly principles of natural economy, then, running into commodity профицитом, a producer, before to produce something, began to think of that, whether this commodity needs to the consumer. But commodity still became all anymore, and meantime a market was sated all more intensive.
Here here work of Россера Ривса came in time "Reality in an advertisement" in that he grounded and described essence of УТП. The basic theses of his ideas were taken to that:
1) every tear-sheet must contain certain suggestion for a consumer: buy exactly this commodity and get this specific benefit exactly;
2) suggestion must be such, what competitor either can not give or does not simply pull out. It must be unique. His unicity must be related either to the unicity of commodity or with a statement that was not yet done in this sphere of advertisement;
3) suggestion must be so strong, that it could bring over new consumers to the consumption.
Certainly, with development advertisement, marketing and PR- of tool of his suggestion were finished off, renewed and represented current position of moment. But the main remained unchanging is an unreserved acceptance of position of his idea about the unique set of descriptions, it is possible to say to the "commodity sparkle", in the products offered to the consumer.
Meantime Россер Ривс, probably, would be surprised, knowing that mostly by a main form realization of his idea of УТП today are discounts.
Naturally, discounts are identical not everywhere and not in everything. We will conduct their classification further.
And what are discounts?
Analysing the various variants of discounts, we can distinguish three basic criteria fixed in basis of classification of discounts.
In the most general view, on the basis of general criterion discounts can be divided by next kinds.
Segment. Essence of them is taken to that a discount relies to some certain circle of persons or task force. These can be schoolchildren, pensioners, representatives of some organizations and establishments. Thus, a division here идет on the basis of statuses and social roles.
In a category segment corporate discounts fall. They arise up then, when either company management And enters into an exclusive contract with a company, services of that she uses or company, interested in production distribution or providing of services, goes out on a company And and forms a corporate "скидочную chain".
Temporal. Temporal discounts are related to the specific of their grant in some certain and specified earlier temporal interval. It can be daypart, season, festive dates etc.
Rescuing from expenses. It is nevertheless necessary to understand discounts not only as УТП but also as a form of rescue from expenses. Me it seems to that the use of discounts justified in case that they assist the financial making healthy of organization. Id est, if we see that collection of clothing or shoe lay too long and it is necessary quickly from her to be released, that, releasing a place from her, to offer new collections to the sale, that use of discounts fully reasonably and justified.
Hidden. It, perhaps, most ridiculous type of discounts. For example, a man идет to buy a washing-machine and, already choosing her model and идя to pay her, knows that discount on her, say, 5%. And besides, man buying a washing-machine, a heater that at including awfully smells lube oil gets in a gift. To understand nature of such discounts, equal as and reasons of marketing specialists their designing and asserting, extremely difficult.
Inconsistent. It is discounts foremost hasty. Giving them, merchants, as a rule, have no conception or plan, and consumers do not know exactly, will be by him a discount is given or no. From the point of view of maintenance something brings together inconsistent discounts with hidden.
Fully appropriately, that each of the brought types over of discounts can be complemented or recovered by other type of discounts. So, segment discounts can carry temporal character and rescue from expenses. And the hidden discounts can carry inconsistent character.
If to take the criterion of their maintenance for basis of classification of discounts, then it is possible to distinguish the next types of discounts.
Actually price discounts, i.e. discounts are in the real money equivalent. The size of discount makes a reservation beforehand, and a customer knows her size beforehand. It most widespread in practice of modern retail type of discounts. Such discounts often arise up during organization of паблисити to the various sales arranged, however, by well-known enough trade marks.
Alternative quantitative discounts suppose "consumer indemnification" for the bought commodity not in a money equivalent, and in a commodity. If to use рекламно-лозунговые appeals, then it looks like the following: "At the purchase of five litres of beer fat "Man" is one and a half litres in a gift"!.
And the last classification of discounts, that we will consider, has a row of state imperatives in the basis, i.e. here the degree of government control of price commodity turnover comes forward a criterion. Here can be two variants.
First - when the state forms the special price, i.e. the real commodity discount(it is possible even to talk about dumping) is set and controlled by the state.
The example of such social discount is the family a conspiracy at highest level of the state with the representatives of the largest trade networks with the purpose of non-admission of price increase in the conditions of inflation on the separate groups of commodities.
Second - accordingly, when the state does not interfere in commercial activity, and discounts are voluntarily set by market players. Because we live in a country with a market economy, fully appropriately, that this variant is most widespread.
From position of marketing, it is important to understand a that simple thing, that a discount is something secondary, she not первоцель. A discount is only called to complement the integrated conception of marketing tool, stimulating sales. But exactly to complement, but not replace.
Reprinting of the article, original here: