Yet at the beginning of 20th century the proprietors of the American supermarkets dreamed about the system of automatic account of the sold commodities. Shops became growingly, an assortment grew. In 1890 during the всеамериканской census of population the system of the processing automated data was first applied by means of puncher cards - strakes of cardboard with the broken through tiny holes. "Groping" opening, a mechanical device read from a puncher card the digital data coded by the location of tiny holes.
In 1932 in America diploma work was protected on a theme automation of trade in supermarkets. Student Wallace Флинт offered to the customers of the future to choose commodities in a shop, not folding them in a basket, and "hammering" a corresponding code into a puncher card. Then a cashier had to insert a puncher card in a reading device. "Knowing" that was ordered by a customer, a machine gave a command to the automation set on storage of shop. In a few minutes the ribbon of conveyer delivered an order to the client of supermarket. The sold commodity would be automatically taken into account thus. Maybe, all would be just like this, if did not invent a stroke-code.
A few it is not back shops had to hold own departments on gluing on of marks on commodities: stroke-encryption ignored business in itself understood. Now such presenting is difficult even. And trade points, where a commodity is counted by hand, it is possible rather to attribute to the exotic places on the map of retail. And market participants already are not set by a question, whether a scintiscanner is needed. Do they ask: what scintiscanner is needed?
Any front-rank technology in course of time becomes antiquated. Such fate waits stroke-encryption that 30 back accomplished little revolution in a retail business. Now on heels NT of RFID, system of radio frequency authentication, treads him.
That does can RFID?
One of important advantages of RFID is high-rate of read-out of information about a commodity(a few thousand labels are in a second). Important, but far not only.
A mark and device of read-out of RFID can be disposed arbitrarily, a mark even not necessarily must be in the zone of line-of-sight. On RFID- a mark can be brought unlimited information content. A read-out takes place automatically, as soon as a radiomark gets in the field of action of aerial; for her a cinder, dirt, aggressive environment, are not a hindrance. The simultaneous read-out of information is possible from a few radiomarks. RFID- of marks high degree of protecting from imitations.
RFID- the system consists of radiomarks that is fastened on a commodity, and radiodevice, for reading(ридера). Software accumulates and analyses obtained information from marks and binds all elements in single unit.
Depending on distance of finding out a mark can be active(constantly radiate a signal) and passive(activate the work only at affecting them radio signal from ридера). Active marks use energy of own element of feed for the transmission of radio signal. Distance on that reading of such marks is possible can arrive at 100 meters. Passive marks use for the transmission of radio signal energy of the field of ридера and proceeds to the transmission only accumulating necessary energy. Distance of registration of passive marks depends on power of ридера and can arrive at 8 meters.
What is RFID good?
- Hand labour is eliminated on the input of information about a certain commodity in a computer network. Participation of employees is eliminated at motion of commodity from storage to the shop-window or shelving. A consumer is simpler to obtain information about the presence of commodity and his properties.
- The process of maintenance of customer is repeatedly accelerated on a calculation-cash knot.
- The controlled from distance forming of basket of customer becomes possible, that results in reduction of trade areas. RFID- of the system watch a commodity on all stages of chain of delivery - from a producer to the salesman.
- The process of receipt of commodities becomes absolutely planned, that allows to shorten ware-house areas.
- On storage of RFID- of technology allow the отслеживаеть moving of commodities in real time. They accelerate the basic processes of reception and shipping. With introduction of RFID the situations related to the shortage of commodity on storage are eliminated.
- With RFID a necessary commodity is supplied exactly in those shops of network, where he is required. A commodity does not stay too long on the way, because the losses of time are eliminated at the overload of commodity parties.Loading and route of motion of transport vehicles is optimized.
RFID in operations
Row of large business concerns of retail of Wal - Mart, Tesco, Metro began wide introduction of RFID of the systems in 2005. There is a company Aberdeen Group "ROI in RFID in November, 2006, a Benchmark Report" brought the first results of introduction of NT in a lecture "Return of investments in RFID, results of tests". A resume was such: 85 % companies, внедрявших RFID, covered a cost investments in this technology less than for five years.
Standards are not present, marks of road.
There are two principal reasons, retentive development of RFID. First high price. The cost of passive marks begins from $0, 14, and active - from $1. But, as well as every equipment, marks fall in price swiftly. Only for 2005 their cost diminished in two times. With price abatement it will be raise amount of consumers. In the total, as evaluated by the analysts of Deutch Bank Research, to 2010 the capacity of market of RFID- of the systems will make 22 milliard of euro.
The second reason retentive the victory procession of RFID is absence of global standards. The largest firms-producers of the systems of radio frequency authentication already formed within the framework of International organization on standardization(ISO) and International electrical engineering committee(IEC) a working group engaging in development of international standards of the systems of radio frequency authentication. The acceptance of series of international standards must settle the problems related to compatibility of components of the systems of RFID of different producers. As succeeded to find out Retailer.RU, in Russia this technology is not yet certificated. But an equipment is selective certificated.
Russian ритейлеры while only get used and assess the price to RFID. Igor Васильев, deputy of director general of company ETIM, told that NT the companies specialized on the sale of expensive technique were interested in.
If the cost of RFID will be comparable with the cost of штрих-кодирования, then, maybe, she will be inculcated in Russia, Oleg Вайнберг talks, IT- director компьютер-центра "Кей". But the Russian skilled craftsmen not not to do a hand's turn, in expectant of natural price abatement on an equipment. They think how to inculcate these technologies, spending a little less money. Know нарабатывают - how. There "are the special washes by means of that an ordinary scintiscanner штрих-кода will read RFID- of mark. They cost $15-20", - Sergey Белец, director of management of consulting of network, is divided "Expert".
Ритейлеры think not only about advantages of RFID but also possible negative consequences of introduction of front-rank technology. "With this technology there are questions, besides costliness. There are problems with safety, - Oleg Вайнберг is divided by doubts. - whether you Want, that some "longshoreman" or "dispatch", bringing a commodity from suppliers, resembling obtained information in the КПК about the complete state of your storage. And yet present such picture: the same "dispatch" forgot for you on storage a little small box that will wipe RFID- of mark from all commodity. 10 000 sq.m. shelves with a commodity with effaced RFID, to no way to identify a commodity!. "
With introduction RFID can increase percent of stealing, ритейлеры fear. In opinion of Denis Сологуба, IT- of director of network of shops "Alphabet of taste", RFID- technology is counted on a "honest" customer - the "dishonest" always has temptation to blow off a mark and carry away a commodity unpaid. RFID supposes in fact, that there is not a cashier in a trading floor, and all payment of commodity takes place automatically. Indeed, Denis Сологуб considers that "Alphabet of taste" is subject to the danger of stealing in a less measure. "Our customers are loyal enough in relation to a shop, therefore the losses related to stealing are small as compared to other networks". If someone will begin now to inculcate RFID in Russia, then only in a bonus segment, Denis Сологуб considers.
But in course of time, stroke-encryption will give place RFID. "After RFID, in any case, the future, it is not simply desirable to spend too much money" on her, Sergey Белец, director of management of consulting of network, establishes "Expert". True not eliminated, that, when all ритейлеры finally will pass to RFID, in scientific laboratories will take up development of new, yet more perfect and rapid technology of authentication of commodity.
One of factors of success of trade network is providing of high speed of maintenance of customer. The use of technologies of stroke encryption allows to attain the required aim. However it is necessary to take into account that an enterprise of retail business is a conveyer, where all elements are associate: from reliability and productivity of each of them efficiency of work of all network depends, in the end.
on materials НПО is "East"